Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property wpdb::$categories is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/wp-db.php on line 668

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Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property wpdb::$link2cat is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/wp-db.php on line 668

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Theme::offsetExists($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-theme.php on line 554

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Theme::offsetGet($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-theme.php on line 595

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Theme::offsetSet($offset, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-theme.php on line 535

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Theme::offsetUnset($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-theme.php on line 544

Deprecated: Return type of WP_REST_Request::offsetExists($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/rest-api/class-wp-rest-request.php on line 960

Deprecated: Return type of WP_REST_Request::offsetGet($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/rest-api/class-wp-rest-request.php on line 980

Deprecated: Return type of WP_REST_Request::offsetSet($offset, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/rest-api/class-wp-rest-request.php on line 992

Deprecated: Return type of WP_REST_Request::offsetUnset($offset) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/rest-api/class-wp-rest-request.php on line 1003

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::current() should either be compatible with Iterator::current(): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 151

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::next() should either be compatible with Iterator::next(): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 175

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::key() should either be compatible with Iterator::key(): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 164

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::valid() should either be compatible with Iterator::valid(): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 186

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::rewind() should either be compatible with Iterator::rewind(): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 138

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::offsetExists($index) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetExists(mixed $offset): bool, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 75

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::offsetGet($index) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetGet(mixed $offset): mixed, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 89

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::offsetSet($index, $value) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetSet(mixed $offset, mixed $value): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 110

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::offsetUnset($index) should either be compatible with ArrayAccess::offsetUnset(mixed $offset): void, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 127

Deprecated: Return type of WP_Block_List::count() should either be compatible with Countable::count(): int, or the #[\ReturnTypeWillChange] attribute should be used to temporarily suppress the notice in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-block-list.php on line 199

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property wpdb::$snippets is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/wp-db.php on line 668

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property wpdb::$ms_snippets is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/wp-db.php on line 668

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Main::$helpers is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/lib/abstract-main.php on line 65

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Widget_Pages::$show_instance_in_rest is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/gutenberg/lib/widgets.php on line 157

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Widget_Calendar::$show_instance_in_rest is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/gutenberg/lib/widgets.php on line 157

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Widget_Archives::$show_instance_in_rest is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/gutenberg/lib/widgets.php on line 157

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Widget_Media_Audio::$show_instance_in_rest is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/gutenberg/lib/widgets.php on line 157

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Widget_Media_Image::$show_instance_in_rest is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/gutenberg/lib/widgets.php on line 157

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Widget_Media_Gallery::$show_instance_in_rest is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/gutenberg/lib/widgets.php on line 157

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Widget_Media_Video::$show_instance_in_rest is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/gutenberg/lib/widgets.php on line 157

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Widget_Meta::$show_instance_in_rest is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/gutenberg/lib/widgets.php on line 157

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Widget_Search::$show_instance_in_rest is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/gutenberg/lib/widgets.php on line 157

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Widget_Text::$show_instance_in_rest is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/gutenberg/lib/widgets.php on line 157

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Widget_Categories::$show_instance_in_rest is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/gutenberg/lib/widgets.php on line 157

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Widget_Recent_Posts::$show_instance_in_rest is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/gutenberg/lib/widgets.php on line 157

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Widget_Recent_Comments::$show_instance_in_rest is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/gutenberg/lib/widgets.php on line 157

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Widget_RSS::$show_instance_in_rest is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/gutenberg/lib/widgets.php on line 157

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Widget_Tag_Cloud::$show_instance_in_rest is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/gutenberg/lib/widgets.php on line 157

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Nav_Menu_Widget::$show_instance_in_rest is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/gutenberg/lib/widgets.php on line 157

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Widget_Custom_HTML::$show_instance_in_rest is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/gutenberg/lib/widgets.php on line 157

Deprecated: DateTime::__construct(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($datetime) of type string is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/script-loader.php on line 348

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Block_Type::$skip_inner_blocks is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-block-type.php on line 333

Deprecated: Constant FILTER_SANITIZE_STRING is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/conditionals/third-party/elementor-edit-conditional.php on line 22

Deprecated: Constant FILTER_SANITIZE_STRING is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/conditionals/third-party/elementor-edit-conditional.php on line 28

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Taxonomy::$rest_namespace is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-taxonomy.php on line 440

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Taxonomy::$rest_namespace is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-taxonomy.php on line 440

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Post_Type::$rest_namespace is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-post-type.php on line 554

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Post_Type::$rest_namespace is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-post-type.php on line 554

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Post_Type::$rest_namespace is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-post-type.php on line 554

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Taxonomy::$rest_namespace is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-taxonomy.php on line 440

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Block_Type::$skip_inner_blocks is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-block-type.php on line 333

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Block_Type::$view_script is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-block-type.php on line 333

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Block_Type::$view_script is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-block-type.php on line 333

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Block_Type::$variations is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-block-type.php on line 333

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Block_Type::$skip_inner_blocks is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-block-type.php on line 333

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Block_Type::$variations is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-block-type.php on line 333

Deprecated: trim(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp.php on line 173

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/wp-db.php:668) in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/mediavine-control-panel/src/Security.php on line 49

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Term::$object_id is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-term.php on line 198

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Term::$object_id is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-term.php on line 198

Deprecated: ltrim(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/wp-db.php on line 3030

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property WP_Term::$object_id is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/class-wp-term.php on line 198

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Surfaces\Classes_Surface::$container is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/surfaces/classes-surface.php on line 20

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Main::$classes is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/lib/abstract-main.php on line 65

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Context\Meta_Tags_Context::$page_type is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 43

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Presentations\Indexable_Post_Type_Presentation::$robots is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Presentations\Indexable_Post_Type_Presentation::$title is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Presentations\Indexable_Post_Type_Presentation::$source is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64
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Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Presentations\Indexable_Post_Type_Presentation::$meta_description is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Presentations\Indexable_Post_Type_Presentation::$canonical is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Presentations\Indexable_Post_Type_Presentation::$rel_prev is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Presentations\Indexable_Post_Type_Presentation::$rel_next is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Presentations\Indexable_Post_Type_Presentation::$open_graph_locale is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Presentations\Indexable_Post_Type_Presentation::$open_graph_type is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Presentations\Indexable_Post_Type_Presentation::$open_graph_title is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Presentations\Indexable_Post_Type_Presentation::$open_graph_description is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Presentations\Indexable_Post_Type_Presentation::$open_graph_url is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Context\Meta_Tags_Context::$wordpress_site_name is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Presentations\Indexable_Post_Type_Presentation::$open_graph_site_name is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Context\Meta_Tags_Context::$company_name is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Context\Meta_Tags_Context::$site_represents is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Context\Meta_Tags_Context::$open_graph_publisher is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Presentations\Indexable_Post_Type_Presentation::$open_graph_article_publisher is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Presentations\Indexable_Post_Type_Presentation::$open_graph_article_author is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Presentations\Indexable_Post_Type_Presentation::$open_graph_article_published_time is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Presentations\Indexable_Post_Type_Presentation::$open_graph_article_modified_time is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Context\Meta_Tags_Context::$open_graph_enabled is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Presentations\Indexable_Post_Type_Presentation::$open_graph_images is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Context\Meta_Tags_Context::$twitter_card is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Presentations\Indexable_Post_Type_Presentation::$twitter_card is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Presentations\Indexable_Post_Type_Presentation::$twitter_title is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Presentations\Indexable_Post_Type_Presentation::$twitter_description is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Presentations\Indexable_Post_Type_Presentation::$twitter_image is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Presentations\Indexable_Post_Type_Presentation::$twitter_creator is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Presentations\Indexable_Post_Type_Presentation::$twitter_site is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Presentations\Indexable_Post_Type_Presentation::$estimated_reading_time_minutes is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Context\Meta_Tags_Context::$canonical is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Context\Meta_Tags_Context::$main_schema_id is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Context\Meta_Tags_Context::$site_url is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Context\Meta_Tags_Context::$schema_article_type is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Context\Meta_Tags_Context::$site_name is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Context\Meta_Tags_Context::$site_represents_reference is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Context\Meta_Tags_Context::$id is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Context\Meta_Tags_Context::$main_image_id is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Context\Meta_Tags_Context::$schema_page_type is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Context\Meta_Tags_Context::$title is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Context\Meta_Tags_Context::$main_image_url is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Context\Meta_Tags_Context::$has_image is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Context\Meta_Tags_Context::$description is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: Creation of dynamic property Yoast\WP\SEO\Presentations\Indexable_Post_Type_Presentation::$breadcrumbs is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/presentations/abstract-presentation.php on line 64

Deprecated: parse_str(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-includes/formatting.php on line 4975

Deprecated: strtolower(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/generators/schema-generator.php on line 176

Deprecated: strtolower(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/generators/schema-generator.php on line 176

Deprecated: strtolower(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/generators/schema-generator.php on line 176

Deprecated: strtolower(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/generators/schema-generator.php on line 176

Deprecated: strtolower(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/generators/schema-generator.php on line 176

Deprecated: strtolower(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/generators/schema-generator.php on line 176

Deprecated: strtolower(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/generators/schema-generator.php on line 176

Deprecated: strtolower(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/generators/schema-generator.php on line 176

Deprecated: strtolower(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/generators/schema-generator.php on line 176

Deprecated: strtolower(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/generators/schema-generator.php on line 176

Deprecated: strtolower(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/generators/schema-generator.php on line 176

Deprecated: strtolower(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/generators/schema-generator.php on line 176

Deprecated: strtolower(): Passing null to parameter #1 ($string) of type string is deprecated in /home/allabou3/public_html/wp-content/plugins/wordpress-seo/src/generators/schema-generator.php on line 176

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homemade toothbrush

How To Make An Old-Fashioned Toothbrush From A Black Gum Twig


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A black gum twig makes a great “old fashioned toothbrush” that was quite common among many of our grandparents or great-grandparents.

“Hog-hair toothbrushes were available at a general store, but many people made their own out of twigs of birch, blackgum, sassafras, and willow. The twig was stripped of its bark and one end was chewed to form the brush. A willow twig made a soft brush that was usually discarded after one or two uses. A blackgum twig made a hard brush that was used several times before disposal. Birch made a soft brush and was probably selected because of its sweet taste.” source

black gum tree in arkansas
Black Gum Tree in Arkansas. Photo by Vickie Gray

Also called “Black Tupelo,” this tree can be found all over The Natural State.

“Native from Ontario, and spreading south to Texas and Florida, this underutilized tree is a ‘hot plant’ for Arkansas. Black gum may have the most reliable red fall color of any native tree.”

source
black gum tree in Arkansas
Black Gum Tree. Photo by Vickie Gray

Recently, my friend Vickie told me a story about how her grandparents taught her how to make a toothbrush from a blackgum twig.

Here is the story Vickie told me:

I was recently reminded of a time when I stayed at my moms parents and I forgot my toothbrush. My granny sent me down the road just a short way from their house and told me to get a twig off of the black gum tree.

I got the twig and took it back to her and she showed me how to peel the skin off the twig…

homemade old fashioned toothbrush
Peeled Black Gum Twig. Photo by Vickie Gray

…and chew the end to make it look like a brush.

black gum twig toothbrush
Black gum twig made into a toothbrush. Photo by Vickie Gray

Then she got some baking soda and had me dip it in and that is how I brushed my teeth.

old fashioned homemade toothbrush
Old-Fashioned Black Gum Toothbrush with Baking Soda

She said they never had toothbrushes and they always used the black gum twig as a toothbrush. My dad’s family did this also. The actual tree that I took the twig from is gone now but my cousin has one on his land and he was telling me that all his family used the black gum toothbrushes.

Now, you all know what to do if you forget your toothbrush while camping in Arkansas! While you’re out there exploring with your new toothbrush, don’t miss this: Things to Do in the Ozark National Forest

You’ll also love this: How To Split A Storm with an Axe[Arkansas Folklore]

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